Professor Bertie Squire

Chair in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Director Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (CAHRD)

Areas of interest

Tuberculosis: improving access by the poor to diagnosis and clinical care.  Equity in Health.  Applied Health Research

Background 

Studied medicine and immunology at University College London and Cambridge University before professional training in internal medicine, infectious diseases and respiratory medicine at the Royal London Hospital and the Royal Free Hospital. From 1992 to 1995 he was Head of the Department of Medicine, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. Since his appointment at LSTM in 1995, Bertie has maintained his research collaboration with the National TB Control Programme in Malawi and has facilitated the transformation of the collaboration into the Malawi-registered Trust for Research on Equity And Community Health (REACH). With his colleagues in Liverpool, Malawi and China he has built up a programme of multi-disciplinary applied health research aimed at providing knowledge for action in making health services for tuberculosis more accessible to poor people in developing countries (including those affected by the HIV pandemic). He holds an appointment in the UK National Health Service as Honorary Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital and is the immediate past President of the International Union Against Tuberculosis & Lung Disease.

Teaching and Examining

Lectures on TB, HIV, schistomiasis, and ethics and smaill group teaching on the Liverpool DTM&H and several Masters Courses.  Lectures to many other groups nationally and internationally

Research

Tuberculosis: improving access to services for the poor including diagnosis and clinical care, implementation research for appropriate technology for disease control. Equity in health. Research ethics.

Recently completed, supervised research thesis titles

2011 – PhD- “Investigation into Early Mortality in Malawian Adults treated for Pulmonary Tuberculosis” (with Prof Munir Pirmohammed)

2008 - PhD -“To what extent can the rural poor access free tuberculosis services in Malawi” (with Dr Alan Haycox)

2007 - PhD - “Strengthening the skills and capacity of the informal community health system to increase early access to tuberculosis services for poor men and women” (with Dr Sally Theobald)

2007 - PhD - “Modulation of human alveolar macrophage function during mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV co-infection”

2007 - DM - “An investigation of “smear-negative” pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi”

Research Grants

Dates

Award Holder

Funding Body

Title

Value (£ sterling equivalent)

2013-2017

S B Squire

Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Association / NORAD

Triage Plus Phase 2: Meeting the unmet need for TB and airways disease

£314,362 LSTM only

2012

D Cohen &  S B Squire

Wellcome Trust

Livelihood impact of home-based injection therapy for recurrent TB

£382,777

2012

S B Squire with The Union

USAID

TREAT TB: Technology, Research, Education and Technical Assistance for Tuberculosis Project

£302,199 LSTM only

2012

S B Squire & T Martineau

DFID

Health and Education Resource Team (in consortium led by Oxford Policy Management)

£65,000 LSTM only

2011

S B Squire & K Millington

World Health Organisation

Research designs and methods for International Guide on TB Operational Research

£5,200

2010

S B Squire with The Union

USAID

TREAT TB: Technology, Research, Education and Technical Assistance for TB

Year 3 of 5

£300,701

LSTM only

2009

S B Squire with The Union

USAID

TREAT TB: Technology, Research, Education and Technical Assistance for TB

Year 2 of 5

£216,666

LSTM only

2008

S B Squire with The Union

USAID

TREAT TB: Technology, Research, Education and Technical Assistance for TB

Year 1 of 5

£83,333 LSTM only

2009

S B Squire

World Health Organisation

Policy development and design of pro-poor interventions in TB control in China

£20,000

2008

S B Squire

Global STOP-TB Partnership

Hosting the TB & Poverty Subgroup Secretariat

£100,000

2008

S B Squire

World Health Organisation

Policy development and design of pro-poor interventions in TB control in China

£20,000

2008

S B Squire

Global STOP-TB Partnership

Developing equity & poverty impact assessment documentation for new TB diagnostics

£13,333

2007 - 2012

 

S B Squire

Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Association (LHL)

Triage-Plus for TB-HIV

£440,005

 

 

2007

S B Squire

Global STOP-TB Partnership

Hosting the TB & Poverty Subgroup Secretariat

£100,000

2006 - 2010

 

C Waitt &

S B Squire

& M Pirmohamed

 

Wellcome Trust

 

Investigation into the Role of Mycobacterial Antigens in Early Mortality in Patients Treated for TB Clinical Tropical Training Fellowship for Dr Catriona Waitt

£300,000

 

2006

S B Squire

DFID

Workshop (Liverpool 9th to 10th January 2006) to finalise Research Programme Consortium application “Optimising Outcomes of HIV & AIDS Treatment”

£5,700

2005

S B Squire

Rockefeller Foundation

Policy Conference: “TB & Poverty – are we doing enough”

£5,673 & full use of Bellagio Conference and Study Centre

2005

 

S B Squire

Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Association (LHL).

Linking civil society and TB care

 

£173,657

 

2003 - 2005

 

S B Squire

Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Association (LHL)

 

A community-based initiative with store keepers and community leaders to improve access to advice on early treatment and referral for tuberculosis and malaria

£300,358

 

2004 - 2006

 

S B Squire &

ARC Ramsay

World Health Organisation (TDR)

 

Evaluation of sputum concentration methods for the diagnosis of new pulmonary tuberculosis cases by smear microscopy

£38,587

 

2003

 

S B Squire

Global STOP-TB Partnership

Facilitating Action on TB & Poverty

 

£32,000

 

2003

 

S B Squire

Millennium Development Project

Improving Equity in TB Control – the case of Private-Public Mix

£5,945

 

2002

S B Squire & B Nhlema

 

Global STOP-TB Partnership

Systematic analysis of Poverty and Tuberculosis (Supervised Fellowship for Bertha Nhlema)

£90,000

 

2002

S B Squire

Norwegian Heart & Lung Patient Association (LHL)

 

Collaboration with Community Based Patient Support Organisations conducting health education activities regarding TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS in urban Lilongwe

£7,359

 

2001 - 2006

S B Squire

 

Department for International Development (DFID), Health and Population Division UK

TB Knowledge Programme Grant  “Quality-assured TB care for poor people in resource-constrained settings

 

£2,313,796

 

2001

J Kemp &

S B Squire

 

World Health Organisation (TDR)

 

An investigation of gender specific barriers and constraints to TB control in Malawi

£32,632

 

2000 - 2003

Henry Mwandumba

&

S B Squire

 

Wellcome Trust

 

Modulation of human alveolar macrophage function during MTB and HIV co-infections Clinical Tropical Training Fellowship for Dr Henry Mwandumba

£326,324

 

1999 - 2000

Dr N J Hargreaves

&

S B Squire

 

NORAD (Norwegian Aid Agency)

 

Clinical Lecturer Salary for Dr N J Hargreaves (Lecturer in Clinical Tropical Medicine, LSTM) to act as ProTEST Project Co-ordinator in collaboration with the National TB Programme, Lilongwe Malawi

£93,791

 

1998 - 2001

C F Gilks &

S B Squire

 

Department for International Development (DFID) Central Africa

Essential Medical Laboratory Services Project

 

£697,809

 

1998 - 2001

S B Squire & J Kemp

 

Department for International Development (DFID) Central Africa

Equity in TB Control – are the most vulnerable able to access care?

 

£427,000

 

1996

 

S B Squire

Scadding-Morriston Davies Fellowship

 

To pilot new approaches in bronchoscopic diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in areas of high HIV-seroprevalence

£7,750

 

1996

 

S B Squire &

Dr N J Hargreaves

 

Leverhulme Trust

 

The diagnosis of respiratory patients with suspected smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis Studentship abroad for Dr N J Hargreaves

£25,000

 

1996

Dr N J Hargreaves &

S B Squire

Berkeley Fellowship

 

For consumables and equipment to support the TB project in Malawi (see above)

£4,000

 

1992

 

S B Squire

The Wellcome Trust

For an extension to the 1990 Medical Graduate Research Training Fellowship

£7,727

 

1990 - 1992

 

S B Squire

The Wellcome Trust

 

Pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis in allogeneic transplant recipients". Medical Graduate Research Training Fellowship

£59,027

 

Other relevant expertise, professional memberships etc.

  • President, International Union Against TB & Lung Disease (2008-2011)
  • Vice-President, International Union Against TB & Lung Disease (2007-2008)
  • Secretary, TB & Poverty Sub-group (2007 – date)
  • Chair, TB & Poverty Sub-group of the Global Stop-TB Partnership’s DOTS Expansion Working Group (2005 – 2007)
  • Independent Member, Board of Directors, International Union Against TB & Lung Disease (2003 – date)
  • External Examiner for Masters of Public Health programme Nuffield Institute for Health, Leeds, UK (2002-2005)

Publications

  • Contributions to international Health Policy

    Member of National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Programme Development Group: Tuberculosis – hard-to-reach groups (PH37) March 2012 www.guidance.nice.org.uk/PH37

    *Member of Writing Committee. World Health Organisation (WHO)/ STOP-TB / Global Fund for AIDS, TB & Malaria (GFATM) normative guide "Priorities in operational research to improve tuberculosis care and control"ISBN 978 92 4 154825 0 - WHO 2011http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/resources/publications/technical/StopTB%20Guide.pdf (accessed 30/08/11)

    Stop TB Partnership's New Diagnostics Working Group WHO/2009. “Pathways to better diagnostics for tuberculosis: a blueprint for the development of TB diagnostics”. (co-authored chapter on Impact Evaluation)

    *“Addressing Poverty in TB Control.  Options for National TB Control Programmes” WHO/HTM/TB/2005.352(member of Writing Committee)

    “Tuberculosis Control in Refugee Situations: An Interagency Field Manual” WHO/TB/97.221 (member of Review Group)

    Book chapters, Reviews, Editorials and Commentaries

    Squire SB et al.  Applying Scientific Rigour to improve equity and access to TB services. Public Services Revision UK Science and Technology, 2012, Jun: 6  

    Cobelens F, Van den Hof A, Pai M, Squire SB, Ramsay A, Kimerling ME.  Which New Diagnostics for Tuberculosis and When? Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2012, 205(suppl 2): S191-S198 first published online April 3, 2012 doi:10.1093/infdis/jis188.

    Zumla A, Abubakar I, Raviglione M, Hoelscher M, Ditiu Lucica,  Mchugh T D, Squire S B, Cox H, Ford N, McNerney R, Marais B, Grobusch M, Lawn S D, Migliori G, Mwaba P, O'Grady J, Pletschette M, Ramsay A, Chakaya J, Schito M, Swaminathan S, Memish Z, Maeurer M. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis-Current Dilemmas, Unanswered Questions, Challenges, and Priority Needs. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2012; supplement, DOI: 10.1093.infdis/jir858

    McNerney R, Maeurer, Abubakar I, Marais B, Mchugh TD, Ford N, Weyer K, Lawn S, Grobusch MP, Memish Z, Squire, SB, Pantaleo G, Chakaya J, Casenghi M, Migliori G, Mwaba P, Zijenah L, Hoelscher M, Cox H, Swaminathan S, Kim P, Schito M, Harari A, Bates M,  Schwank S, O'Grady J, Pletschette M, Ditui L, Atun R, Zumla A. Tuberculosis Diagnostics and Biomarkers: Needs, Challenges, Recent Advances, and Opportunities.Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2012; supplement, DOI: 10.1093.infdis/jir860

    Abubakar I, Staff HR, Cohen T, Mangtani P, Rodrigues LC, Pimpin L, Watson JM, Squire SB, Zumla A.  Controversies and Unresolved Issues in Tuebrculosis Prevention and Control: A Low-Burden-Country Perspective.  Journal of Infectious Diseases - Supplement 2012 Mar 22.  Doi:10.1093/infdis/jir886

    Kasprowicz VO, Churchyard G, Lawn S, Squire SB, Lalvani A. “Diagnosing Latent Tuberculosis in High-Risk Individuals; Rising to the Challenge in High-Burden Areas” Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011:204:S1168-78

    Mbanya JC, Smith SC, Cazap E, Squire SB. NCD Alliance responds to Iona Heath. Brit Med J 2011 Aug 2;343:d4896. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4896. No abstract available.

    Mbanya JC, Squire SB, Cazap E, Puska P. Mobilising the world for chronic NCDs. Lancet 2011 Feb

    Rusen ID, Squire SB, Billo NE. “Poverty & Lung Health”. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010;4(2):163-5

    Squire SB and Thomson R, Chapter 102 “Tuberculosis and Poverty” in “Tuberculosis, A Comprehensive Clinical Reference” 2009 Eds Zumla & Schaaf (pp 90-915) ISBN 978-1-4160-3988-4

    Squire SB, Chapter 17 ‘Schistosomiasis’ in Lecture Notes: Tropical Medicine” 6th Edition, Blackwell Publishing 2009, Eds Beeching & Gill (pp 158-170) ISBN: 978-1-4051-8048-1.

    Squire SB, Chapter 12 ‘Tuberculosis’ in Lecture Notes: Tropical Medicine” 6th Edition, Blackwell Publishing 2009, Eds Beeching & Gill (pp 85-100) ISBN: 978-1-4051-8048-1.

    Squire SB. Directly Observed therapy and other aspect of management of tuberculosis care, Chapter 17 pp 287-297 in Clinical Tuberculosis 4th edition edited by PDO Davies, PF Barnes and SB Gordon, Hodder Arnold 2008

    Davies GR & Squire SB. Doubts about DOTS (Editorial) Brit Med J 2008; 336:457-458

    Wang Y, Taegtmeyer M, Squire SB, Theobald S. TB services need tailoring for new arrivals, not vice versa.Chronic Respiratory Disease 2008; 5: 49–51