Professor Giancarlo Biagini

08/2014 - to date Professor
08/2011 - 08/2014 Reader
10/2008 - 07/2011 Senior Lecturer 
05/2006 - 10/2008 Lecturer (Tenure Track) in Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology
10/2004 - 05/2006 Early Career Leverhulme Trust Fellow, LSTM
10/2001 - 10/2004 Postdoctoral Associate, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK
12/2000 - 06/2001 Postdoctoral Associate, University of Cambridge, UK
02/1998 - 04/2000 Postdoctoral Associate, University of New South Wales, Australia
1994 - 1998 PhD Biochemistry, Cardiff University
1990 - 1994 BSc (Hons) 1st Class, Biotechnology, Cardiff University


  • Course Coordinator - Biol 484 Human Parasitology (BSc Hons)
  • Course Coordinator - Biol 483 Parasite Chemotherapy
  • Parasitology Co-ordinator - Diploma in Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (DTMH)


Drug Discovery

One of my main research objectives is to develop new therapies for the treatment of malaria and tuberculosis (TB).  Towards this aim, my work has focused on exploiting essential targets in the electron transport chain (ETC) of the malaria parasite and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the malaria parasite, the ETC lends itself to drug development because it contains components that are essential for parasite viability for (i) asexual blood stages –these need to be targeted to treat uncomplicated malaria, (ii) liver stages – this stage needs to be targeted for the development of prophylaxis and to effect radical cure in vivax (relapse) malaria, and (iii) sexual gametocytes - this stage needs to be targeted in order to block transmission of the parasite back into the mosquito vector.  In M. tuberculosis, the ETC also contains components that are essential for survival of both replicating bacilli and dormant/slow growing bacilli.  The essentiality of these components for slow-growing bacilli gives us hope that drugs targeting the ETC may have utility in treating “drug-persistent” bacilli.

The drug discovery projects currently on-going draw from the expertise of an established team consisting of medicinal chemists, computational chemists, structural biochemists, pharmacologists and clinicians.  Key collaborators include Professor Stephen Ward (LSTM), Professor Paul O’Neill (University of Liverpool) and Dr Neil Berry (UoL).  Key industrial collaborators include GSK-Tres Cantos and AstraZeneca.

Figure 1.  Drug Discovery. Fluorescence microscopy images of Mtb bacilli, strain H37Rv, stained using the Auramine Phenol method.  The bacteria were grown in vitro, under aerobic conditions (A) and grown under O2-limiting conditions (B), mimicking non-replicating conditions. (D) Cat3 laboratories at LSTM and (E) Molecular model of atovaquone (Atv) docked into the Qo site of yeast cytochrome bc1 complex (Protein Data Bank code 3CX5), showing hydrogen bonding to Rieske protein residue His181 and cytochrome b residue Glu272.

Molecular Pharmacology

A key activity of the laboratory is to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the mode of action and resistance to current and developing antimalarial classes e.g. atovaquone, endoperoxides, quinolones and quinolines.  In addition, we are attempting to develop better in vitro pharmacodynamics tools that are more predictive of drug efficacy and drug toxicity.  For both malaria and TB projects we are using high content imaging technology (e.g. Operetta) to allow us to follow the pathogen’s responses to both static and dynamic (concentration and time-dependent) drug perturbations.  In the case for TB we are part of the FP7 EU PreDiCT-TB network, which in collaboration with a number of partners from the Pharmaceutical industry is attempting to develop an integrated set of pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo models that provide critical data for the purpose of identifying decision criteria for the progression of drug combinations and optimization of clinical studies in TB patients.  Other pharmacological activities in the laboratory include in vitro and in vivo ADME (including DMPK) testing to support drug discovery projects.

Biochemistry and Physiology

A major activity of the laboratory has been to understand the principle routes of energy conservation and transduction in Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  This involves the characterisation of respiratory components such as the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (ndh), quinol oxidase (cyt bd) and bc1 as well as a-typical transporters such as the H+-dependent choline and Ca2+ transporters.  Cellular bioenergetics studies of these components have looked at functions such as membrane potential generation, intracellular pH maintenance, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and organic and inorganic metabolite transport.  More recently, a metabolomics approach has been taken to understand the interplay between these components and central metabolism and also to identify metabolomic fingerprints of these pathogens in response to abiotic and drug pertubations.


Figure 3. (A) Electron transport chain of the malaria parasite mitochondrion, (B & C) Intracellular pH of the malaria parasite in response to extracellular Cl- manipulation, (D) membrane potential of the malaria parasite mitochondrion, and (D) targeted metabolomics of the malaria parasite revealing an increase in dihydroorotate in response to perturbation with atovaquone.

 Current and Past PhD Students


Primary Supervisor (Y/N)

Year PhD started

Year PhD awarded

Current post

Parnpen Viriyavejakul




Senior Lecturer, Mahidol University, Thailand

Katie Hughes




Postdcoctoral Fellow, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology University, Glagow, UK

Mohammed Al-Helal




Lecturer and regional co-ordinator of the Malaria Elimination Programme, Saudi

Kwannan Nantavisai




Lecturer, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

Susan Beveridge





Teresa Rito




Post Tech SME Biotech Portugal

Roslaini Abd Majid




Lecturer, University Putra, Malaysia

Khairul Mustaffa




Lecturer, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Malaysia

Thomas Antoine




Post Doc, Intana Bioscience GmbH,Germany

Taghreed Hafiz





Murad Mubaraki




Assistant Professor

College of Applied Medical Sciences

King Saud University

Michael Capper




In Progress

Rachel Clare




In Progress

Matthew Phanchana




In Progress

Eva Caamano-Gutierrez




In Progress

Saif Ahmed




In Progress

Grants Awarded

MRC Confidence in Concept (CIC)  “Tropical Infectious Disease Consortium: Expanding and Accelerating Product Development” Prof. S Ward (PI), G Biagini, S. Croft, S. Draper, M. Carroll (Co-Is) 2014-2016 (£500,000)

MRC: Defining the mechanism of action of the 8-aminoquinolines: A pre-requisite to rationally designed safe antimalarials for the elinination era.  Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI), Prof Paul O'Neill, Dr Mark Paine, Prof Stephen Ward and Dr Baker (CoIs). 2014-2017 (£518,135)

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Discovery Project: Development of a drug candidate for uncomplicated malaria targeting the mitochondrial NADH:quinone oxidoreducatse. Profs. Steve Ward, Paul O’Neill and Dr Giancarlo Biagini. 2013 ($82,148)

MRC - Liverpool Imaging Partnership: Molecular physiology and drug response.  Dr Raphael Levy (PI) and Dr Giancarlo Biagini (Co-I). 2013 (£1,025,831)

MRC Confidence in Concept (CIC) “Accelerating Product Development for Tropical Infectious Disease” Prof. Steve Ward (PI), Drs Giancaro Biagini and Simon Wagstaff. 2013 (£250,000)

GSK-Tres Cantos Open Lab Foundation “Triazole series as potential serine protease inhibitors”, Profs. Paul O”Neill (PI), Steve Ward, Drs Neil Berry and Giancarlo Biagini. 2012-2014 (£156,667)

Wellcome Trust - Biomedical Vacation Scholarship. 2012 (£1,440)

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Challenge Grant “Screening the ‘Malaria Box’ for novel drug interactions”. Prof. Angus Bell (PI) and Dr Giancarlo Biagini. 2012–2013 ($50,000)

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Challenge Grant “Screening the yeast deletion collection against the MMV Malaria Box”.  Dr Simon Avery (PI), Dr Giancarlo Biagini, Profs. Richard Pleass and Stephen Ward. 2012-2013 ($50,000)

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Discovery Project: “Development of a Drug Candidate for Uncomplicated Malaria targeting the mitochondrial NADH:quinone oxidoreducatse”. Prof. Stephen Ward (PI), Dr Giancarlo Biagini and Prof. Paul O’Neill. 2012-2013 ($400,495)

IMI EU FP7 "Model-based preclinical development of anti-tuberculosis drug combinations". Total EU award ~€15 million. Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI) and Prof. Steve Ward. 2012-2015 (€478,278)

MRC-DFPS "Lead series development and optimisation of a new drug against active and latent tuberculosis".  Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI), Profs. Steve Ward, Paul O'Neill and Dr Neil Berry. 2011-2013 (£1.02 million)

Wellcome Trust (Seeding Drug Discovery). "Alternative complex I as a new drug target against malaria". Prof. Stephen Ward (PI), Extension, Dr Giancarlo Biagini and Prof. Paul O'Neill. 2010-2011 (£67,000)

National Institute for Health Research. "Advancing proof-of-principle concerning the type II NADH: Quinone Oxidoreductase (NDH): a novel drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI), prolongation award and Prof. Steve Ward. 2010-2012 (£103,200)

Project PTDC/SAU-FCF/098734/2008. "Targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain of malaria parasites: computer-assisted design and synthesis of bc1 complex inhibitors as antimlarial agents". Funded by FCT (Fundacao para a Ciencia ea Tecnologia). R Moreira, Dr Giancarlo Biagini and Prof. Paul O'Neill. 2009-2012 (€148,769)

PhD studentship "Characterization of the branched respiratory chain during latency and persistence phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth". King Saud University. 2009-2013 (£33,000)

PhD studentship "Characterization of the energy metabolism of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum". King Saud University. 2009-2013 (£33,000)

National Institute for Health Research, Liverpool BRC. Product Pipeline Delivery Award. Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI) with Profs. Steve Ward, Paul O'Neill and Dr Neil Berry. 2009-2010 (£97,000)

Wellcome Trust (Seeding Drug Discovery). "Alternative complex I as a new drug target against malaria". Prof. Steve Ward (PI), Dr Giancarlo Biagini and Prof. Paul O'Neill. 2008-2010 (£1.4 million)

Malaysian Government. "Bioenergetics & pharmacology of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI). 2007-2010 (£22,500)

National Institute for Health Research. "Advancing proof-of-principle concerning the type II NADH: Quinone Oxidoreductase (NDH): a novel drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI) and Prof. Steve Ward. 2007-2010 (£202,091)

Leverhulme Trust-Project Grant. "A new drug target against malaria". Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI), Profs. Steve Ward, Paul O'Neill and Dr Neil Berry. 2006-2009 (£141,000)

Early Career Leverhulme Trust Fellowship. "Exploiting the Ca2+ physiology of the malaria parasite". Dr Giancarlo Biagini (PI). 2004-2007 (£46,000)

Other relevant expertise, professional memberships etc.

  • Editor, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy – the leading international general antimicrobial journal (2011 to date)
  • Sub-editor for the Malaria Journal (now relinquished)
  • Member of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Grants Programme Reviewer (2013-to date)
  • British Biochemical Society - Bioenergetics Committee Member (2011-to date)
  • Member of the Steering Committee of the EU Predict TB network
  • Affiliate of the TBD-UK (Tuberculosis Drug Discovery-UK) network
  • Member of the British Society for Parasitology
  • Fellow of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


  • Selected publications

    Salcedo-Sora, JE, Caamano-Gutierrez E, Ward SA, and Biagini GA. (2014) The proliferating cell hypothesis: a metabolic framework for Plasmodium growth and development. Trends in Parasitology

    Stocks PA, Barton V, Antoine T, Biagini GA, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. (2014)  Novel inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum electron transport chain. Parasitology 141(1): 50-65.

    AntoineT, Fisher N, Amewu R, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA.  (2014)  Rapid kill of malaria parasites by artemisinin and semi-synthetic endoperoxides involves ROS-dependent depolarization of membrane potential. J Antimicrob Chemother. 69(4):1005-16.

    Nixon GL, Pidathala C, Shone AE, Antoine T, Fisher N, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. (2013)  Targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain of Plasmodium falciparum: new strategies towards the development of improved antimalarials for the elimination era. Future Med Chem 5(13):1573-91.

    Ressurreição AS, Gonçalves D, Sitoe AR, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Góis A, Gonçalves LM, Bronze MR, Hanscheid T,Biagini GA, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, O'Neill P, Mota MM, Lopes F, Moreira R. Structural Optimization of Quinolon-4(1H)-imines as Dual-Stage Antimalarials: Toward Increased Potency and Metabolic Stability. J Med Chem. (2013) 56(19):7679-90

    van Schalkwyk DA, Saliba KJ, Biagini GA, Bray PG, Kirk K. (2013) Loss of pH control in Plasmodium falciparumparasites subjected to oxidative stress. PLoS One 8(3):e58933.

    Nixon GL, Moss DM, Shone AE, Lalloo DG, Fisher N, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. (2013)  Antimalarial pharmacology and therapeutics of atovaquone. J Antimicrob Chemother. 68:977-85.

    Ashley J. Warman AJ, Rito TS, Fisher NE, Moss DM, Berry NG, O’Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA (2013) Antitubercular pharmacodynamics of phenothiazines Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 68:869-80.

    Salcedo-Sora JE, Ward SA, Biagini GA. (2012) A yeast expression system for functional and pharmacological studies of the malaria parasite Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Malar J. 11:254.

    Biagini GA, Fisher N, Shone AE, Mubaraki MA, Srivastava A, Hill A, Antoine T, Warman AJ, Davies J, Pidathala C, Amewu RK, Leung SC, Sharma R, Gibbons P, Hong DW, Pacorel B, Lawrenson AS, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Stocks PA, Nixon GL, Chadwick J, Hemingway J, Delves MJ, Sinden RE, Zeeman AM, Kocken CH, Berry NG, O'Neill PM and Ward SA. (2012) Generation of quinolone antimalarials targeting the Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial respiratory chain for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(21):8298-303.

    Vallières C, Fisher N, Antoine T, Al-Helal M, Stocks P, Berry NG, Lawrenson AS, Ward SA, O' Neill PM, Biagini GA* and Meunier B. (2012) HDQ, a potent inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation binds to the Qi site of the bc1 complex. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 56(7):3739-47. (*Co-corresponding author)

    Cowley R, Leung S, Fisher N, Al-Helal M, Berry NG, Lawrenson AS, Sharma R, Shone AE, Ward SA, Biagini GA* and O'Neill PM. (2012) The development of quinolone esters as novel antimalarial agents targeting the Plasmodium falciparum bc1 protein complex. Med Chem Comm. 3: 39-44. (*Co-corresponding author)

    Sharma R, Lawrenson AS, Fisher NE, Warman AJ, Shone AE, Hill A, Mbekeani A, Pidathala C, Amewu RK, Leung S, Gibbons P, Hong DW, Stocks P, Nixon GL, Chadwick J, Shearer J, Gowers I, Cronk D, Parel SP, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA* and Berry NG. (2012Identification of novel antimalarial chemotypes via chemoinformatic compound selection methods for a high-throughput screening program against the novel malarial target, PfNDH2: increasing hit rate via virtual screening methods.) J Med Chem. 55:3144-54. (*Co-corresponding author)

     Leung SC, Gibbons P, Amewu R, Nixon GL, Pidathala C, Hong WD, Pacorel B, Berry NG, Sharma R, Stocks PA, Srivastava A, Shone AE, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Hill A, Fisher NE, Warman AJ,Biagini GA*, Ward SA and O'Neill PM. (2012) Identification, design and biological evaluation of heterocyclic quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2). J Med Chem. 55:1844-57. (*Co-corresponding author)

    Pidathala C, Amewu R, Pacorel B, Nixon GL, Gibbons P, Hong WD, Leung SC, Berry NG, Sharma R, Stocks PA, Srivastava A, Shone AE, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Hill A, Fisher NE, Warman AJ,Biagini GA*, Ward SA and O'Neill (2012). PM.Identification, design and biological evaluation of bisaryl quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2). J Med Chem. 55:1831-43. (*Co-corresponding author)

     Fisher N, Abd Majid R, Antoine T, Al-Helal M, Warman AJ, Johnson DJ, Lawrenson AS, Ranson H, O'Neill PM, Ward SA and Biagini GA. (2012) Cytochrome b mutation Y268S conferring atovaquone resistance phenotype in malaria parasite results in reduced parasite bc1 catalytic turnover and protein expression. J Biol Chem. 287:9731-41.

     Salcedo-Sora JE, Ochong E, Beveridge S, Johnson D, Nzila A, Biagini GA, Stocks PA, O'Neill PM, Krishna S, Bray PG and Ward SA.(2011) The molecular basis of folate salvage in Plasmodium falciparum: Characterization of two folate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2011 286(52):44659-68.

    Rodrigues T, Moreira R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, O Neill PM, Biagini GA, Lopes F, dos Santos DJ and Guedes RC. (2011) Identification of new antimalarial leads by use of virtual screening against cytochrome bc1. Bioorg Med Chem. 19:6302-8.

    Berger O, Kaniti A, van Ba CT, Vial H, Ward SA, Biagini GA, Bray PG, O'Neill PM (2011). Synthesis and antimalarial activities of a diverse set of triazole-containing furamidine analogues. ChemMedChem. 6:2094-108.

    Gibbons P, Verissimo E, Araujo NC, Barton V, Nixon GL, Amewu RK, Chadwick J, Stocks PA, Biagini GA, Srivastava A, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Guedes RC, Moreira R, Sharma R, Berry N, Cristiano ML, Shone AE, Ward SA and O'Neill PM. (2010) Endoperoxide carbonyl falcipain 2/3 inhibitor hybrids: toward combination chemotherapy of malaria through a single chemical entity.  Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53: 8202-8206.

    Lucumi E, Darling C, Jo H, Napper AD, Chandramohandas R, Fisher N, Shone AE, Jing H, Ward SA, Biagini GA, Degrado WF, Diamond SL and Greenbaum DC (2010). Discovery of potent small molecule inhibitors of multi-drug resistant P. falciparum using a novel miniaturized high-throughput luciferase-based assay. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 54: 3597-3604..

    Barton V, Fisher N, Biagini GA, Ward SA and O'Neill PM (2010). Inhibiting Plasmodium cytochrome bc(1): a complex issue. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 14: 440-446.

    Kongkathip N, Pradidphol N, Hasitapan K, Grigg R, Kao WC, Hunte C, Fisher N, Warman AJ, Biagini GA, Kongsaeree P, Chuawong P and Kongkathip B (2010). Transforming rhinacanthin analogues from potent anticancer agents into potent antimalarial agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53: 1211-1221.

    Henry RI, Cobbold SA, Allen RJ, Khan A, Hayward R, Lehane AM, Bray PG, Howitt SM, Biagini GA, Saliba KJ and Kirk K (2010). An acid-loading chloride transport pathway in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285: 18615-18626.

    Hughes KR, Biagini GA and Craig AG (2010).  Continued cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells after antimalarial treatment.  Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 169: 71-78.

    Biagini GA, Bray PG and Ward SA (2009). Mechanisms of antimalarial drug resistance. In: Antimicrobial Drug Resistance (D.L Mayers ed.) pp 559-572. Humana Press.

    Fisher N, Warman AJ, Ward SA and Biagini GA (2009). Chapter 17 Type II NADH: quinone oxidoreductases ofPlasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis kinetic and high-throughput assays. Methods in Enzymology456: 303-320.

    Lian LY, Al-Helal M, Roslaini AM, Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA and Biagini GA (2009). Glycerol: an unexpected major metabolite of energy metabolism by the human malaria parasite. Malaria Journal 8: 38.

    O'Neill PM, Shone AE, Stanford D, Nixon G, Asadollahy E, Park BK, Maggs JL, Roberts P, Stocks PA, Biagini G, Bray PG, Davies J, Berry N, Hall C, Rimmer K, Winstanley PA, Hindley S, Bambal RB, Davis CB, Bates M, Gresham SL, Brigandi RA, Gomez-de-Las-Heras FM, Gargallo DV, Parapini S, Vivas L, Lander H, Taramelli D and Ward SA (2009). Synthesis, antimalarial activity, and preclinical pharmacology of a novel series of 4'-fluoro and 4'-chloro analogues of amodiaquine. Identification of a suitable "back-up" compound for N-tert-butyl isoquine. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 52: 1828-1844.

    O'Neill PM, Park BK, Shone AE, Maggs JL, Roberts P, Stocks PA, Biagini GA, Bray PG, Gibbons P, Berry N, Winstanley PA, Mukhtar A, Bonar-Law R, Hindley S, Bambal RB, Davis CB, Bates M, Hart TK, Gresham SL, Lawrence RM, Brigandi RA, Gomez-Delas-Heras FM, Gargallo DV and Ward SA (2009). Candidate selection and preclinical evaluation of N-tert-Butyl isoquine (GSK369796), an affordable and effective 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial for the 21st century. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 52: 1408-1415.

    Biagini GA, Fisher N, Berry N, Stocks PA, Meunier B, Williams DP, Bonar-Law R, Bray PG, Owen A, O'Neill PM and Ward SA (2008). Acridinediones: selective and potent inhibitors of the malaria parasite mitochondrial bc1 complex. Molecular Pharmacology 73: 1347-1355.

    Quashie NB, Dorin-Semblat D, Bray PG, Biagini GA,Doerig C, Ranford-Cartwright LC and De Koning HP (2008). A comprehensive model of purine uptake by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Identification of four purine transport activities in intraerythrocytic parasites. Biochemical Journal 411: 287-295.

    Wootton DG, Opara H, Biagini GA, Kanjala MK, Duparc S, Kirby PL, Woessner M, Neate C, Nyirenda M, Blencowe H, Dube-Mbeye Q, Kanyok T, Ward S, Molyneux M, Dunyo S and Winstanley PA (2008). Open-label comparative clinical study of chlorproguanil-dapsone fixed dose combination (Lapdaptrade mark) alone or with three different doses of artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS ONE 3: e1779.

    Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA and, Biagini GA (2008). Malaria-parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases as drug targets: too early to write the obituary. Trends in Parasitology 24: 9-10.

    Fisher N and Biagini GA (2007).  Structure, function and physiological role of the human malaria parasite type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. In: Complex I and Alternative Dehydrogenases (Ed. M. I. González Siso)pp 85-98.  Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India (2007).  ISBN: 978-81-7895-300-7.

    Stocks PA, Bray PG, Barton VE, Al-Helal M, Jones M, Arouja NC, Gibbons P, Ward SA, Hughes RA, Biagini GA, Davies J, Amewu R, Mercer AE, Ellis G and O'Neill PM (2007).  Evidence for a common non-heme chelatable-iron-dependent activation mechanism for semisynthetic and synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial drugs. Angewandte Chemie (International Ed in English) 46: 6278-6283.

    Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA and Biagini GA (2007).  The malaria parasite type II NADH: quinone oxidoreductase: an alternative enzyme for an alternative lifestyle.  Trends in Parasitology 23: 305-310.

    Richier E, Biagini GA, Wein S, Boudou F, Bray PG, Ward SA, Precigout E, Calas M, Dubremetz JF and Vial HJ (2006). Potent antihematozoan activity of novel bisthiazolium drug T16: evidence for inhibition of phosphatidylcholine metabolism in erythrocytes infected with Babesia and Plasmodium spp. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50: 3381-3388.

    Bray PG, Mungthin M, Hastings IM, Biagini GA, Saidu DA, Lakshmanan V, Johnson DJ, Hughes RH, Stocks PL, O'Neill PM, Fidock DA, Warhurst DC and Ward SA (2006). PfCRT and the trans-vacuolar proton electrochemical gradient: regulating the access of chloroquine to ferriprotoporphyrin IX. Molecular Microbiology 62: 238-251.

    Edwards G and Biagini GA (2006). Resisting resistance: dealing with the irrepressible problem of malaria. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 61: 690-693.

    O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Berry NG, Jeyadevan JP, Biagini GA, Asadollaly E, Park BK and Bray PG (2006). A medicinal chemistry perspective on 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial drugs. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 6: 479-507.

    Biagini GA, Viriyavejakul P, O'Neill PM, Bray PG and Ward SA (2006). Functional characterization and target validation of alternative complex I of Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy50: 1841-1851.

    Harris KM, Goldberg B, Biagini GA and Lloyd D (2006). Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis Produce nitric cxide and display NO-synthase activity. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53: S182-S183.

    Biagini GA, Fidock DA, Bray PG and Ward SA (2005). Mutations conferring drug resistance in malaria parasite drug transporters Pgh1 and PfCRT do not affect steady-state vacuolar Ca2+. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 49: 4807-4808.

    Biagini GA, O'Neill PM, Bray PG and Ward SA (2005). Current drug development portfolio for antimalarial therapies.Current Opinion in Pharmacology 5: 473-478.

    Biagini GA, Ward SA and Bray PG (2005). Malaria parasite transporters as a drug-delivery strategy. Trends in Parasitology 21: 299-301.

    Biagini GA, Pasini EM, Hughes R, De Koning HP, Vial HJ, O'Neill PM, Ward SA and Bray PG (2004). Characterization of the choline carrier of Plasmodium falciparum: a route for the selective delivery of novel antimalarial drugs. Blood 104: 3372-3377.

    Lloyd D, Harris JC, Biagini GA, Hughes MR, Maroulis S, Bernard C, Wadley RB and Edwards MR (2004). The plasma membrane of microaerophilic protists: oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microbiology 150: 1183-1190.

    Biagini GA, Bray PG, Spiller DG, White MR and Ward SA (2003). The digestive food vacuole of the malaria parasite is a dynamic intracellular Ca2+ store. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 27910-27915.

    Biagini GA, O'Neill PM, Nzila A, Ward SA and Bray PG (2003). Antimalarial chemotherapy: young guns or back to the future?  Trends in Parasitology 19: 479-487.

    Biagini GA, Richier E, Bray PG, Calas M, Vial H and Ward SA (2003). Heme binding contributes to antimalarial activity of bis-quaternary ammoniums. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 47: 2584-2589.

    Biagini GA, Yarlett N, Ball GE, Billetz AC, Lindmark DG, Martinez MP, Lloyd D and Edwards MR (2003). Bacterial-like energy metabolism in the amitochondriate protozoon Hexamita inflata. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology128: 11-19.

    Lloyd D, Biagini GA, Ellis J and Paget T. Oxygen Homeodynamics in Giardia intestinalis.  In: Giardia: The Cosmopolitan Parasite (Olson BE, Olson ME, Wallis PM, editors).  CAB international. UK, (2002), 29-43.

    Sobanski MA, Vince R, Biagini GA, Cousins C, Guiver M, Gray SJ, Kaczmarski EB and Coakley WT (2002). Ultrasound-enhanced detection of individual meningococcal serogroups by latex immuno-assay. Journal of Clinical Pathology 55: 37-40.

    Biagini GA, Knodler LA, Kirk K and Edwards MR (2001). Na+ dependent pH regulation by the microaerophilic parasite Giardia intestinalis.  Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 29157-29162.

    Sobanski MA, Stephens J, Biagini GA and Coakley WT (2001). Detection of adenovirus and rotavirus antigens by immuno-gold lateral flow test and ultrasound-enhanced latex agglutination assay. Journal of Medical Microbiology 50: 203.

    Biagini GA, Park JH, Lloyd D and Edwards MR (2001). Antioxidant potential of pyruvate in the amitochondriate diplomonads Giardia intestinalis and Hexamita inflata. Microbiology 147: 3359-3365.

    Biagini GA, Kirk K, Schofield PJ and Edwards MR (2000). Role of K+ and amino acids in osmoregulation by the free-living microaerophilic protozoon Hexamita inflata. Microbiology 146: 427-433.

    Biagini GA, Lloyd D, Kirk K and Edwards MR (2000). Membrane potential in Giardia intestinalis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 192: 153-157.

    Biagini GA and Bernard C (2000). Primitive anaerobic protozoa: a false concept? Microbiology 146: 1019-1020.

    Lloyd D, Harris JC, Maroulis S, Biagini GA, Wadley RB, Turner M P and Edwards MR (2000). The microaerophilic flagellate Giardia intestinalis: oxygen and its reaction products collapse membrane potential and cause cytotoxicity.Microbiology 146: 3109-3118.

    Lloyd D and Biagini GA (1998). Too much O2?  Microbiology 144: 1131.

    Biagini GA, McIntyre PS, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1998). Carbohydrate and amino acid fermentation in the free-living primitive protozoon Hexamita sp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 203-207.

    Biagini GA, Rutter AJ, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1998). Lipids and lipid metabolism in the microaerobic free-living diplomonad Hexamita sp. European Journal of Protistology 34: 148-152.

    Biagini GA, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1998). Protozoan stimulation of anaerobic microbial activity: enhancement of the rate of terminal decomposition of organic matter. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 27: 1-8.

    Biagini GA, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1997). Evolution of the hydrogenosome. FEMS Microbiology Letters 155: 133-140.

    Biagini GA, van der Giezen M, Hill B, Winters C and Lloyd D (1997).  Ca2+ accumulation in the hydrogenosomes ofNeocallimastix frontalis L2: a mitochondrial-like physiological role. FEMS Microbiology Letters 149: 227-232.

    Biagini GA, Hayes A.J, Suller MTE, Winters C, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1997). Hydrogenosomes of Metopus contortus physiologically resemble mitochondria. Microbiology 143: 1623-1629.

    Biagini GA, Suller MTE, Finlay BJ and Lloyd D (1997). Oxygen uptake and antioxidant responses of the free-living diplomonad Hexamita sp. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 44: 447-453.

    Turner NA, Biagini GA and Lloyd D (1997). Anaerobiosis-induced differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. FEMS Microbiology Letters 157: 149-153.