Dr Caroline Jeffery

Research Associate in Biostatistics

Caroline Jeffery joined the Department of International Public Health in March 2010, as expert in Biostatistics for the Monitoring and Evaluation Technical assistance and Research (METRe) group, led by Prof Joe Valadez. Since July 2021, she conducts statistical and health economic analyses for RESPOND AFRICA.

She completed her PhD in Biostatistics at Harvard University. Her research focuses on disease mapping and the use of spatial information on cases in public health surveillance, in particular the inclusion of residential history in mapping, mapping multiple diseases, and studying the effect of aggregation on the performance of spatial methods. She also holds a MA in Mathematics from Boston College and a Maîtrise in Applied Mathematics and Social Sciences from Paris IX Dauphine.


As part of the METRe group, she is an active biostatistician for continued extension of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and other rapid statistical assessment methods, as they relate to monitoring and evaluation and health systems research.

As part of RESPOND AFRICA, she conducts statistical and health economic analyses for projects in Tanzania and Uganda focusing on NCD in HIV patients, and integration of NCD care with HIV care.

Her methodological research program also includes spatial statistical methods for public health, including geostatistical disease mapping, focusing on the evaluation of these methods, and how precision of spatial data can impact results of analysis.


[2022-current] Member of convening team for Skills module and statistics module in new MIPH MSc programme.
[2020-current] Co-convener of the Leadership in Health Systems Management module, on the Masters in Global Health.
[2012-2021] Co-convenor of the Key Themes in International Health and Health Policy module, on the Masters of International Public Health programme.
Masters’ student project supervision: Dr Wole Ameyan (2010-2011); Dr Ayobami Olanrewaju (2013-2014); Audrey Mahieu (2014-2015).

Other relevant expertise

  • Professional Certificate in Supporting Learning (SEDA Award)

Selected publications

  • C Jeffery, M Pagano, B Devkota, JJ Valadez. Improving health information systems using an annealing technique for hybrid prevalence estimation in Bihar, India. Innovative approach to improve information accuracy in a two-district cross-sectional study in Bihar, India. BMJ open. 2022 Jan 1;12(1):e051427.

    C Jeffery, M Pagano, J Hemingway, JJ Valadez. Hybrid prevalence estimation: a method to improve intervention coverage estimations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115.51 (2018): 13063-13068.

    DA Sprague, C Jeffery, NK Crossland, TA House, G Roberts, WE Vargas, J Ouma, SK Lwanga, JJ Valadez. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of delivery practices of mothers in multiple districts of Uganda, 2003- 2012. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 2016, vol. 13, no 1, p. 1.

    C Jeffery, C Beckworth, WC Hadden, J Ouma, SK Lwanga, JJ. Valadez. Associations with HIV testing in Uganda: An analysis of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling database 2003-2012. AIDS Care. 2015 Nov 19:1-5. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2015.1112350.

    S Anoke, P Mwai, C Jeffery, JJ Valadez, M Pagano. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2015 Dec;20(12):1756-70. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12605.

    NK Crossland, WC Hadden, JJ Valadez, C Jeffery. Knowledge, behaviours and access to sexual and reproductive health services of Ugandan youths: changes from 2003-04 to 2012. Journal of Adolescent Health 57.4 (2015): 393-398. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.06.015.

    W Ameyan Jr, C Jeffery, K Negash, E Biruk, M Taegtmeyer. Female sex workers in Ethiopia require deliberate strategies to attract them to HIV testing and counselling: a qualitative study with street and establishment-based sex workers in Addis Ababa. The African Journal of AIDS Research, 2015 14(2), 137-144, doi: 10.2989/16085906.2015.1040809.

    JJ Valadez, C Jeffery, R Davis, J Ouma, SK Lwanga, SG Moxon. Putting the C back into the ABCs: A multi-year, multi-region investigation of condom use by Ugandan youths 2003-2010. PLoS ONE, 2014 9(4): e93083. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093083.

    C Jeffery, A Ozonoff, M Pagano. (2014) 'The effect of spatial aggregation on performance when mapping a risk of disease.'. International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol 13, :9.

    JJ Valadez, S Berendes, C Jeffery, J Thomson, H Ben Othman, L Danon, AA Turki, R Saffalden, L Mirzoyan (2013) 'Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya'. PLoS ONE, Vol 8, Issue 6, e66701.

    C Jeffery, A Ozonoff, LF White, M Pagano (2013) 'Distance-Based Mapping of Disease Risk.'. International journal of biostatistics, Vol 9, Issue 2, pp. 265-290.

    L Mirzoyan, S Berendes, C Jeffery, J Thomson, H Ben Othman, L Danon, AA Turki, R Saffalden, JJ Valadez. (2013) 'New evidence on the HIV epidemic in Libya: why countries must implement prevention programmes among people who inject drugs.'. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol 62, Issue 5, pp. 577-583.

    J Manjourides, H Lin, S Shin, C Jeffery, C Contreras, J Santa Cruz, O Jave, M Yagui, L Asencios, M Pagano, T Cohen (2012) 'Identifying multidrug resistant tuberculosis transmission hotspots using routinely collected data'. Tuberculosis, Vol 92, Issue 3, pp. 273-9.

    C Jeffery, A Ozonoff, LF White, M Nuño, M Pagano. Power to detect spatial disturbances under different levels of geographic aggregation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(6):849-854 (2009).

    A Ozonoff, C Jeffery, J Manjourides, LF White, M Pagano. Effect of spatial resolution on cluster detection: a simulation study. International Journal of Health Geographics 6(52):1-7 (2007).