Dr Mark Paine


Dr Paine graduated in Genetics from Wits University, Johannesburg in 1983. In 1990 he obtained his PhD for research on the molecular biology of viper venoms from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. In 1993 he moved to the University of Dundee Biomedical Research Centre to work on molecular aspects of human drug metabolising enzymes. In 2006 he returned to the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine to work on the related chemical detoxification mechanisms of insects, and the problem of insecticide resistance.


Forewarned is forearmed: Dr Paine heads the Enzyme Characterisation Group (ECG) whose research is primarily aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance and developing tools to accelerate the development of new resistance diagnostics and active ingredients for vector conrol. This involves the use of a wide range of biochemical, molecular and analytical techniques and collaborations across academia and industry.


Aspects of vector biology, insecticide resistance and vector control for undergraduate, MSc, DTMH and DTN modules.


Mark is a Fellow Royal Entomogical Society

Selected publications

  • Lees, R. S. et al. New insecticide screening platforms indicate that Mitochondrial Complex I inhibitors are susceptible to cross ‑ resistance by mosquito P450s that metabolise pyrethroids. Sci. Rep. 1–10 (2020) doi:10.1038/s41598-020-73267-x.

    Yunta, C. et al. Cross-resistance profiles of malaria mosquito P450s associated with pyrethroid resistance against WHO insecticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 161, 61–67 (2019).

    Spencer, C. S. et al. Characterisation of Anopheles gambiae heme oxygenase and metalloporphyrin feeding suggests a potential role in reproduction. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 98, 25–33 (2018).

    Stevenson, B. J., Pignatelli, P., Nikou, D. & Paine, M. J. I. Pinpointing P450s Associated with Pyrethroid Metabolism in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Developing New Tools to Combat Insecticide Resistance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6, (2012).

    Ismail, H. M. et al. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 19766–71 (2013).

    David, J. P., Ismail, H. M., Chandor-Proust, A. & Paine, M. J. I. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance : impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 368, 20120429 (2013)