Dr Nicola Desmond

Reader in Medical Anthropology and Global Health

Nicola has recently relocated from Malawi where she established the social science programme and ran the Behaviour and Health Research Group at the Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme. She moved to LSTM in November 2010 and also holds honorary positions at the University of Liverpool and the College of Medicine, University of Malawi. 


PhD Medical Anthropology (2009, University of Glasgow MRC SPHSU)
MSc Social Anthropology (1997, University College, London)
BA (Hons) French with Anthropology (1994, University College London)


Nicola has worked extensively across sub-Saharan Africa where she has lived for the past 20 years, working with the Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit and LSHTM before joining LSTM and MLW.

She held a Wellcome Trust Research fellowship in Ethics and Society focused on the unintended consequences and social impacts of health technologies (HIV self-testing) and leads work both as an anthropologist exploring the processes and impacts of global public health practice and a pragmatic social scientist working within the discipline of global health to promote engagement with health seeking and improved health behaviours. Nicola is committed to strengthening and supporting international global health research driven by Southern partners and has supported the career development of over 20 trainees from junior to postdoctoral fellowships.

She currently leads the Malawi Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme Health Utilization Study as a national impact evaluation, working closely with the Ministry of Health in Malawi, the WHO and PATH and the Global Health Bioethics Network for Malawi as part of a large Wellcome Trust Strategic Award to build capacity in ethics and engagement research across Africa and Asia Programmes. Her recent work on improving pathways to care for severe illness in children funded through the Scottish Government and Meningitis Research Foundation has influenced policy implementation for emergency care at primary level in Malawi.

She has recently completed work as Malawi Principal Investigator for the STAR Consortium taking the lead on work introducing and evaluating HIV self-testing within key populations and monitoring social harms. She has been involved in a number of expert panels and technical working groups for WHO and others, is an editorial board member of BMC Public Health journal and an Academic Advisor for the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission.

Specific current research projects include

Principal Investigator on the Health Utilization Study for Malawi with the Ministry of Health, PATH and WHO exploring the impact of introducing the RTS,S malaria vaccine into the expanded programme of immunization strategy including behavioural impact and acceptability.

Co-PI on Wellcome Trust-funded Strategic Award: Global Health Bioethics Network with Professor Mike Parker at the University of Oxford and partners in Vietnam, Thailand, South Africa, Kenya and Malawi. Work under this grant includes research on optimising community engagement using participatory methods, ethical assessments of the concept of ancillary care in Malawi, risks and responsibilities of research participants, informed consent optimisation in emergency and non-emergency settings, improving data collection and fieldworker practice, ethics of secondary data use in low resource settings.

Co-PI on NIHR-funded Global Health Research Group (led by Professor Tom Solomon): Brain Infections Global with University of Liverpool, University of Warwick and research groups in India, Brazil and Malawi leading work on patient and sample journey modelling for intervention development and evaluation

Co-PI on MRC-funded projects: APT-Sepsis and FAST-M Plus with University of Liverpool (Professor David Lissauer) to develop interventions to improve management of maternal sepsis in Malawi leading work on behaviour change implementation and process evaluation

Co-Investigator and Malawi lead for the Wellcome Trust-funded AMETHIST Collaborative Award (led by Professor Frances Cowan) to optimise differentiated HIV prevention and care among sex workers in southern Africa in order to support virtual elimination of infectious HIV among sex workers in the region

Part of STAR multi-country consortium to explore scale-up of HIV self-testing (With Professors Miriam Taegtmeyer and Frances Cowan)

Internal Advisory Group member for the DfID-funded LIGHT Consortium on the development of more gender-sensitive approaches in access to quality care for TB in Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria and the UK

Part of the Minimally Invasive Tissue Sampling (MITS) Acceptability group working with the MITS Alliance, University of Oxford and University of Washington, Seattle to optimise and explore acceptability of minimal autopsy for child deaths in low resource settings.

Covid-19 research projects include work with WHO and the BI Global group to understand risk perceptions amongst health care workers and a CEIDR-Liverpool funded study to explore community response and risk perceptions of Covid-19 in Malawi.

PhD students 

Blessings Kapumba (2019 to date): The Social and Ethical Implications of Data-Prompted Ancillary Care in Southern Africa

Jennifor Trainor (2019 to date): The meaning of pre-term birth among childbearing women in Malawi

Mtisunge Gondwe (2019 to date): Strengthening integration of monitoring and evaluation systems for neonatal care at community, primary and tertiary level facilities in Malawi.

Wezzie Lora (2016 to 2020): Understanding vulnerability and empowerment through engagement with biomedical HIV prevention technologies in female sex workers in Malawi

Jane Ardrey (2014 to 2019): ‘An advanced cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under 5 years old in Malawi: a qualitative perspective’

Deborah Nyirenda (2014 to 2018): An investigation of the relevance of community engagement in medical research

Moses Kumwenda (2013 to 2017): Consequences for couples testing for HIV on partnership dynamics and linkages into care in Blantyre, Malawi

Eleanor MacPherson (2011 to 2014): Understanding gender power relations, transactional sex and HIV in fishing communities in Southern Malawi

Other relevant expertise, professional memberships etc

  • Academic Adviser: Commonwealth Scholarship Commission (2020 to date)
  • WHO: HQ/KPP Key Populations & Innovative Prevention Expert Review Committee
  • MITS Alliance: International Technical Working Group International Minimally Invasive Tissue Sampling (MITS) Alliance for Social Sciences
  • WHO: HIV Self-Testing Technical Working Group to develop the strategic framework for HIV self-testing in Africa and International Guidelines
  • Editorial board member for BMC Public Health
  • LSTM Ethics Committee member
  • College of Medicine Ethics Committee Expert Adviser
  • Honorary positions at University of Liverpool and College of Medicine, University of Malawi

Selected publications

    1. Deborah Nyirenda, Salla Sariola, Patricia Kingori, Bertie Squire, Chiwoza Bandawe, Michael Parker & Nicola Desmond (2020) Structural coercion in the context of community engagement in global health research conducted in a low resource setting in Africa BMC Medical Ethics volume 21, Article number: 90 doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00530-1
    2. Wezzie S. Lora, Nicola Desmond, Angela Obasi, Moses Kumwenda, Miriam Taegtmeyer, Rachel Tolhurst, Eleanor E. MacPherson 2020 “I wanted evidence that my status had changed, so that is why I tested”: experiences with HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Malawi AIDS Care 2020 In Press
    3. Pitchaya P. Indravudh, Katherine Fielding, Moses K. Kumwenda, Rebecca Nzawa, Richard Chilongosi, Nicola Desmond, Rose Nyirenda, Cheryl C. Johnson, Rachel C. Baggaley, Karin Hatzold, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Elizabeth L. Corbett (2019) Community-led delivery of HIV self-testing to improve HIV testing, ART initiation and broader social outcomes in rural Malawi: study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial BMC Infectious Diseases https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4430-4
    4. Napierala S, Desmond N, Kumwenda M, Tumushime M, Sibanda E.L, Indravudh P, Hatzold K, Johnson C, Baggaley R, Corbett E, Cowan F.M.A tale of two countries: Lessons learned from implementation and scale-up of HIV self-testing services for female sex workers in Zimbabwe and Malawi WHO Bulletin Article ID: BLT.18.223560
    5. Helen Mangochi, Kate Gooding, Michael Parker, Aisleen Bennett, Nicola Desmond, Susan BullHow should assent to research be sought in low income settings? Perspectives from parents and children in Southern Malawi BMC Medical Ethics https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-019-0369-7
    6. Lees, S; Marchant, M; Desmond, N;        (2019) Addressing Intimate Partner Violence Using Gender-Transformative Approaches at a Community Level in Rural Tanzania: The UZIKWASA program. Journal of interpersonal violence 886260519831373-886260519831373
    7. Lissauer, David; Wilson, Amie; Hewitt, Catherine A; Middleton, Lee; Bishop, Jonathan RB; Daniels, Jane; Merriel, Abi; Weeks, Andrew; Mhango, Chisale; Mataya, Ronald; … Desmond, N; Sabaratnam Arulkumaran; Zulfiqar A. Bhutta; Ahmet M. Gulmezoglu; Arri Coomarasamy (2019)  A Randomized Trial of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Miscarriage Surgery New England Journal of Medicine 380 11 1012-1021
    8. Kumwenda, Moses K; Johnson, Cheryl C; Choko, Augustine T; Lora, Wezzie; Sibande, Wakumanya; Sakala, Doreen; Indravudh, Pitchaya; Chilongosi, Richard; Baggaley, Rachael C; Nyirenda, Rose; Desmond, N; Corbett, E (2019) Exploring social harms during distribution of HIV self-testing kits using mixed-methods approaches in Malawi. Journal of the International AIDS Society 22 e25251
    9. Phiri, Mackwellings; Gooding, Kate; Nyirenda, Deborah; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Desmond, Nicola; (2018) “Not just dogs, but rabid dogs”: tensions and conflicts amongst research volunteers in Malawi Global Bioethics 29 1 65-80
    10. Gooding, Kate; Phiri, Mackwellings; Peterson, Ingrid; Parker, Michael; Desmond, Nicola; (2018) Six dimensions of research trial acceptability: how much, what, when, in what circumstances, to whom and why? Social Science & Medicine 213 190-198
    11. Lissauer, David; Wilson, Amie; Daniels, Jane; Middleton, Lee; Bishop, Jon; Hewitt, Catherine; Merriel, Abi; Weeks, Andrew; Mhango, Chisale; Mataya, Ronald … Desmond, N; Sabaratnam Arulkumaran; Zulfiqar A. Bhutta; Ahmet M. Gulmezoglu; Arri Coomarasamy (2018) A Prophylactic antibiotics to reduce pelvic infection in women having miscarriage surgery–The AIMS (Antibiotics in Miscarriage Surgery) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial Trials 19 1 245
    12. Bates, M Jane; Mphwatiwa, Treza; Ardrey, Jane; Desmond, Nicola; Niessen, Louis W; Squire, S Bertel (2018) Household concepts of wellbeing and the contribution of palliative care in the context of advanced cancer: A Photovoice study from Blantyre, Malawi PloS One 13 8 e0202490
    13. Nyirenda, Deborah; Gooding, Kate; Lora, Wezzie; Kumwenda, Moses; McMorrow, Meredith; Everett, Dean; Desmond, Nicola (2018) Complexities and dilemmas in community consultation on the design of a research project logo in Malawi       PloS One 13 10 e0205737
    14. Nyirenda, Deborah; Makawa, Tamara Chipasula; Chapita, Greyson; Mdalla, Chisomo; Nkolokosa, Mzati; O’byrne, Thomasena; Heyderman, Robert; Desmond, Nicola (2018) Public engagement in Malawi through a health-talk radio programme ‘Umoyo nkukambirana’: A mixed-methods evaluation       Public Understanding of Science              27 2 229-242
    15. Neuman, Melissa; Indravudh, Pitchaya; Chilongosi, Richard; d’Elbée, Marc; Desmond, Nicola; Fielding, Katherine; Hensen, Bernadette; Johnson, Cheryl; Mkandawire, Phillip; Mwinga, Alwyn; …Corbett, E L (2018)  The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based lay distribution of HIV self-tests in increasing uptake of HIV testing among adults in rural Malawi and rural and peri-urban Zambia: protocol for STAR (self-testing for Africa) cluster randomized evaluations BMC Public Health 18 1 1234
    16. Ong, Jason J; Wu, Dan; Huang, Wenting; Fu, Hongyun; Desmond, Nicola; Ma, Wei; Kang, Dianmin; Liao, Meizhen; Marley, Gifty; Wei, Chongyi; Pressured HIV testing “in the name of love”: a mixed methods analysis of pressured HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China Journal of the International AIDS Society 21 3 e25098 2018
    17. Desmond, Nicola; Nagelkerke, Nico; Lora, Wezzie; Chipeta, Effie; Sambo, Mwiza; Kumwenda, Moses; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Taegtemeyer, Miriam; Seeley, Janet; Lalloo, David G; Theobald, S (2018) Measuring sexual behaviour in Malawi: a triangulation of three data collection instruments BMC public health 18 1 807
    18. Cohen, DB; Phiri, M; Banda, H; Squire, SB; Namakhoma, I; Desmond, Nicola (2018) A qualitative evaluation of hospital versus community-based management of patients on injectable treatments for tuberculosis      BMC public health 18 1 1127
    19. Nyirenda, Deborah; Sariola, Salla; Gooding, Kate; Phiri, Mackwellings; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Moyo, Elvis; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Squire, Bertie; Desmond, Nicola (2018) ‘We are the eyes and ears of researchers and community’: understanding the role of community advisory groups in representing researchers and communities in Malawi Developing world bioethics 18 4 420-428
    20. Ong, Jason J; Li, Haochu; Dan, Wu; Fu, Hongyun; Liu, Ewen; Ma, Wei; Kang, Dianmin; Liao, Meizhen; Marley, Gifty; Wei, Chongyi;  Weiming Tang, PhD,Stephen Pan, PhD,Chuncheng Liu, Nicola Desmond, Bin Yang,Ligang Yang, Shujie Huang and Joseph D. Tucker(2018) Coercion and HIV self-testing in men who have sex with men: implementation data from a cross-sectional survey in China JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 77 2 e22-e25
    21. Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Corbett, Elizabeth Lucy; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Phiri, Mackwellings; Mwale, Daniel; Choko, Augustine Talumba; Nliwasa, Marriot; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Desmond, Nicola (2018) Discordance, disclosure and normative gender roles: Barriers to couple testing within a community-level HIV self-testing intervention in urban Blantyre, Malawi AIDS and Behavior 22 8 2491-2499
    22. Indravudh, P; Fielding, K; Neuman, M; Chilongosi, R; Mkandawire, P; Nyondo, E; Nzawa, R; Magombo, L; Chalira, D; Kumwenda, M; Johnson, Cheryl, Nkhoma, Chiwawa, Desmond, Nicola, Hatzold, Karin and Corbett, Liz (2018) Increasing knowledge of HIV status and demand for antiretroviral therapy using community-based HIV self-testing in rural communities: a cluster randomised trial in Malawi JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY 21 141-142
    23. Ong, Jason; Wu, Dan; Huang, Wenting; Fu, Hongyun; Desmond, Nicola; Ma, Wei; Kang, Dianmin; Liao, Meizhen; Marley, Gifty; Wei, Chongyi;               Tucker, J T (2018) Pressured HIV testing “in the name of love” Journal of the International Aids Society 21 3
    24. Choko, Augustine Talumba; Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Johnson, Cheryl Case; Sakala, Doreen Wongera; Chikalipo, Maria Chifuniro; Fielding, Katherine; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Elizabeth Lucy; (2017) Acceptability of woman‐delivered HIV self‐testing to the male partner, and additional interventions: a qualitative study of antenatal care participants in Malawi Journal of the International AIDS Society 20 1 21610
    25. Witzel, T Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola (2017) Uptake contexts and perceived impacts of HIV testing and counselling among adults in East and Southern Africa: A meta-ethnographic review PloS One 12 2 e0170588
    26. Chikovore, J; Hart, G; Kumwenda, M; Chipungu, G; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, EL; (2017) TB and HIV stigma compounded by threatened masculinity: implications for TB health-care seeking in Malawi The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease 21 11 S26-S33
    27. Choko, Augustine T; Fielding, Katherine; Stallard, Nigel; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Lepine, Aurelia; Desmond, Nicola; Kumwenda, Moses K; Corbett, Elizabeth L; (2017) Investigating interventions to increase uptake of HIV testing and linkage into care or prevention for male partners of pregnant women in antenatal clinics in Blantyre, Malawi: study protocol for a cluster randomised trial Trials 18 1 349
    28. Choko, Augustine; Kumwenda, Moses; Fielding, Katherine; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, E L (2016) Acceptability of woman-delivered HIV self-testing to the male partner: a qualitative study of antenatal clinic participants in Malawi
    29. Chikovore, Jeremiah; Hart, Graham; Kumwenda, Moses; Choko, Augustine; Chipungu, Geoff; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Kaswaswa, Kruger; Nliwasa, Marriott; Mwapasa, Mphatso; Desmond, N; Corbett, E L (2016) The influence of masculinity on care seeking for TB
    30. Lora, Wezzie; Chipeta, E; Desmond, N; (2016) Understanding coercion in the context of semi-supervised HIV self-testing in urban Blantyre, Malawi 21st International AIDS Conference 18-22
    31. Kumwenda, M; Munthali, A; Choko, A; Chikovore, J; Nliwasa, M; Sambakunsi, R; Chipungu, G; Mwapasa, M; Kaswaswa, K; Gutteberg, T; Desmond, N, Corbett, E L (2016) The influence of masculinity on HIVST community intervention: a qualitative evaluation of empirical evidence from Blantyre, Malawi
    32. Kumwenda, Moses; Desmond, Nicola; Hart, Graham; Choko, Augustine; Chipungu, Geoffrey A; Nyirenda, Deborah; Shand, Tim; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Chikovore, Jeremiah (2016) Treatment-seeking for tuberculosis-suggestive symptoms: a reflection on the role of human agency in the context of universal health coverage in Malawi PloS One 11 4 e0154103
    33. Ardrey, Jane; Desmond, Nicola; Tolhurst, Rachel; Mortimer, Kevin (2016) The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: a nested pilot of Photovoice participatory research methodology PloS One 11 6 e0156500
    34. McCallum, Andrew D; Nyirenda, Deborah; Lora, Wezzie; Khoo, Saye H; Sloan, Derek J; Mwandumba, Henry C; Desmond, Nicola; Davies, Geraint R (2016) Perceptions of Research Bronchoscopy in Malawian Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study PloS One 11 10 e0165734
    35. MacPherson, Eleanor; Sadalaki, John; Nyongopa, Victoria; Nkhwazi, Lawrence; Phiri, Mackwellings; Chimphonda, Alinafe; Desmond, Nicola; Mwapasa, Victor; Lalloo, David G; Seeley, Janet (2015) Exploring the complexity of microfinance and HIV in fishing communities on the shores of Lake Malawi Review of African political economy 42 145 414-436
    36. Hawkes, S; Shand, T; Desmond, N; Colvin, C; Zamawe, C; O14. 5 (2015) Blind spot on heterosexual men? multiple pathways to STI care among men in Malawi 
    37. Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Kumwenda, Moses; Choko, Augustine; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Desmond, Nicola Ann (2015) ‘Whose failure counts?’A critical reflection on definitions of failure for community health volunteers providing HIV self-testing in a community-based HIV/TB intervention study in urban Malawi Anthropology & Medicine 22 3 234-249
    38. Choko, Augustine T; MacPherson, Peter; Webb, Emily L; Willey, Barbara A; Feasy, Helena; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Mdolo, Aaron; Makombe, Simon D; Desmond, Nicola; Hayes, Richard; Corbett, E L              (2015) Uptake, accuracy, safety, and linkage into care over two years of promoting annual self-testing for HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: a community-based prospective study PLoS Medicine 12 9 e1001873       
    39. Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola (2015) Considerations for a human rights impact assessment of a population wide treatment for HIV prevention intervention Developing World Bioethics 15 3 115-124
    40. Desmond, Nicola (2015) Engaging with risk in non-Western settings: An editorial Health Risk & Society https://doi.org/10.1080/13698575.2015.1086482
    41. Chikovore, Jeremiah; Hart, Graham; Kumwenda, Moses; Chipungu, Geoffrey A; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Liz; (2014) Control, struggle, and emergent masculinities: a qualitative study of men’s care-seeking determinants for chronic cough and tuberculosis symptoms in Blantyre, Malawi BMC public health 14 1 1053
    42. MacPherson, Peter; Lalloo, David G; Webb, Emily L; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Choko, Augustine T; Makombe, Simon D; Butterworth, Anthony E; Van Oosterhout, Joep J; Desmond, Nicola; Thindwa, Deus; Corbett, E L (2014) Effect of optional home initiation of HIV care following HIV self-testing on antiretroviral therapy initiation among adults in Malawi: a randomized clinical trial JAMA 312 4 372-379
    43. Brostrom, Martina; Desmond, Nicola (2014) Through the rabbit hole: Considering the situational experience of risk among men who have sex with men in the context of HIV prevention AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 30 S1 A22-A22
    44. Kumwenda, Moses; Munthali, Alister; Phiri, Mackwellings; Mwale, Daniel; Gutteberg, Tore; MacPherson, Eleanor; Theobald, Sally; Corbett, Liz; Desmond, Nicola (2014) Factors shaping initial decision-making to self-test amongst cohabiting couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi AIDS and Behavior 18 4 396-404
    45. MacPherson, Peter; Lalloo, David G; Thindwa, Deus; Webb, Emily L; Squire, S Bertel; Chipungu, Geoffrey A; Desmond, Nicola; Makombe, Simon D; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Choko, Augustine T; Corbettm E L (2014) A novel community health worker tool outperforms WHO clinical staging for assessment of antiretroviral therapy eligibility in a resource-limited setting Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 65 2 e74
    46. Choko, Augustine T; MacPherson, Peter; Webb, Emily L; Ball, Helena; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Mdolo, Aaron; Makombe, Simon D; Desmond, Nicola; Hayes, Richard; Corbett, Elizabeth L (2014) 147 One Year Outcomes Following Community-Based HIV Self-Testing: A Prospective Study in Malawi
    47. Desmond, Nicola A; Nyirenda, Deborah; Dube, Queen; Mallewa, MacPherson; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Lalloo, David G; Heyderman, Robert S (2013) Recognising and treatment seeking for acute bacterial meningitis in adults and children in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study PLoS One 8 7 e68163
    48. Kadir, Ayesha; Marais, Frederick; Desmond, Nicola (2013) Community perceptions of the social determinants of child health in Western Cape, South Africa: neglect as a major indicator of child health and wellness              Paediatrics and International Child Health 33 4 310-321
    49. O'Byrne, Thomasena; Nyirenda, Deborah; Perrin, Rachel; Marshall, Sara; Geldof, Marije; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Lufesi, Norman; Nyirenda, Eltas; Dube, Queen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Desmond, Nicola (2013) Improving recognition of severe illness and patient pathways in primary health services using mHealth technology in urban Blantyre, Malawi Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine 2 4s 02-Mar
    50. MacPherson, Peter; Lalloo, David G; Choko, Augustine T; Mann, Gillian H; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Mwale, Daniel; Manda, Eddie; Makombe, Simon D; Desmond, Nicola; Heyderman, Robert; Corbett, E L (2012) Suboptimal patterns of provider initiated HIV testing and counselling, antiretroviral therapy eligibility assessment and referral in primary health clinic attendees in Blantyre, Malawi Tropical Medicine & International Health 17 4 507-517
    51. MacPherson, Eleanor E; Sadalaki, John; Njoloma, Macdonald; Nyongopa, Victoria; Nkhwazi, Lawrence; Mwapasa, Victor; Lalloo, David G; Desmond, Nicola; Seeley, Janet; Theobald, Sally (2012) Transactional sex and HIV: understanding the gendered structural drivers of HIV in fishing communities in Southern Malawi Journal of the International AIDS Society 15 17364
    52. MacPherson, Peter; MacPherson, Eleanor E; Mwale, Daniel; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Makombe, Simon D; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Lalloo, David G; Desmond, Nicola (2012) Barriers and facilitators to linkage to ART in primary care: a qualitative study of patients and providers in Blantyre, Malawi Journal of the International AIDS Society 15 2 18020
    53. Desmond, Nicola; Prost, Audrey; Wight, Daniel (2012) Managing risk through treatment-seeking in rural north-western Tanzania: Categorising health problems as malaria and nzoka Health, Risk & Society 14 2 149-170
    54. Choko, Augustine Talumba; Desmond, Nicola; Webb, Emily L; Chavula, Kondwani; Napierala-Mavedzenge, Sue; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Makombe, Simon D; Chunda, Treza; Squire, S Bertel; French, Neil; Corbett, E L (2011) The uptake and accuracy of oral kits for HIV self-testing in high HIV prevalence setting: a cross-sectional feasibility study in Blantyre, Malawi PLoS Medicine            8 10 e1001102
    55. MacPherson, Peter; Webb, Emily L; Choko, Augustine T; Desmond, Nicola; Chavula, Kondwani; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Makombe, Simon D; Chunda, Treza; Squire, S Bertel; Corbett, Elizabeth L (2011) Stigmatising attitudes among people offered home-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi: construction and analysis of a stigma scale PLoS One 6 10 e26814
    56. Allen, Caroline F; Desmond, Nicola; Chiduo, Betty; Medard, Lemmy; Lees, Shelley S; Vallely, Andrew; Francis, Suzanna C; Ross, David A; Hayes, Richard J (2010) Intravaginal and menstrual practices among women working in food and recreational facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania: implications for microbicide trials AIDS and Behavior 14 5 1169-1181
    57. Lees, Shelley; Cook, Claire; Vallely, Andrew; Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline; Kiro, Kagemlo; Wamoyi, Joyce; Medard, Lemmy; Pool, Robert; Hayes, Richard J (2010) Comparison of sexual behaviour data collected using a coital diary and a clinic based interview during a microbicide pilot study in Mwanza, Tanzania Sexually Transmitted Diseases 37 8    497
    58. Desmond, Nicola Ann; ‘Ni kubahatisha tu!’-‘It’s just a game of chance!’Adaptation and resignation to perceived risks in rural Tanzania (2009)
    59. Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline; Bugeke, Gilbert; Vallely, Andrew; Ross, David (2009) Sexual risk behaviour for women working in recreational venues in Mwanza, Tanzania: considerations for the acceptability and use of vaginal microbicide gels Culture, Health & Sexuality 11 6 581-595
    60. Vallely, Andrew; Shagi, Charles; Kasindi, Stella; Chiduo, Betty; Desmond, Nicola; Soteli, Selephina; Kavit, Natujwa; Vallely, Lisa; Lees, Shelley; Hayes, Richard; A model for community representation and participation in HIV prevention trials among women who engage in transactional sex in Africa 2008
    61. Desmond, Nicola (2008) Contrasting Risk Priorities for Health. The Social Construction of Risk Perception in NW Tanzania  ponencia presentada en el First International Sociological Association Forum of Sociology 5
    62. Shagi, Charles; Vallely, Andrew; Kasindi, Stella; Chiduo, Betty; Desmond, Nicola; Soteli, Selephina; Kavit, Natujwa; Vallely, Lisa; Lees, Shelley; Hayes, Richard (2008) A model for community representation and participation in HIV prevention trials among women who engage in transactional sex in Africa AIDS Care 20 9 1039-1049
    63. Allen, Caroline F; Lees, Shelley S; Desmond, Nicola A; Der, Geoff; Chiduo, Betty; Hambleton, Ian; Knight, Louise; Vallely, Andrew; Ross, David A; Hayes, Richard J (2007) Validity of coital diaries in a feasibility study for the Microbicides Development Programme trial among women at high risk of HIV/AIDS in Mwanza, Tanzania Sexually Transmitted Infections 83 6 490-497
    64. Vallely, Andrew; Shagi, Charles; Kasindi, Stella; Desmond, Nicola; Lees, Shelley; Chiduo, Betty; Hayes, Richard; Allen, Caroline; Ross, David (2007) The benefits of participatory methodologies to develop effective community dialogue in the context of a microbicide trial feasibility study in Mwanza, Tanzania    BMC Public Health 7 1 133
    65. Desmond, Nicola; Solomon, Anthony W; Massae, Patrick A; Lema, Ndeeshi; Anemona, Alessandra; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David CW (2005) Acceptability of azithromycin for the control of trachoma in Northern Tanzania Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 99 9 656-663
    66. Lees, S; Wight, D; Allen, C; Desmond, N; Chiduo, B; Vallely, A; Der, G; Knight, L; Hayes, R; Ross, DA (2005) The reliability of coital diaries in collecting sexual behaviour data in a microbicides trial feasibility study in Mwanza, Tanzania HIV/AIDS and STI News 9 03-Apr 2005
    67. Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline F; Clift, Simon; Justine, Butolwa; Mzugu, Joseph; Plummer, Mary L; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Ross, David A (2005) A typology of groups at risk of HIV/STI in a gold mining town in north-western Tanzania Social Science & Medicine 60 8 1739-1749